C. S. Lewis: Fantasy, Fairy Tales and Writing for Children

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Narnia Lion

“I am almost inclined to set it up as a canon that a children’s story which is enjoyed only by children is a bad children’s story.”   C. S. Lewis

Lewis Fairy TalesC.S. Lewis believed that a children’s story is sometimes simply the right form for what a writer wants to convey and that a good story would be re-read and enjoyed at any age. He cites The Wind in the Willows as an example saying, “I never met The Wind in the Willows…books till I was in my late twenties and I do not think I have enjoyed them any the less on that account.”  He cautions against writing sentimentally about children as seen by their elders noting that our childhood was lived differently from what our elders saw.  The reality of childhood creeps out if we are open and allow those characters to speak for themselves.  C. S. Lewis wrote children’s books in the sense that he excluded what he thought they would not like or understand but did not write down to them or below what would attract an adult. “I never wrote down to anyone; and whether the opinion condemns or acquits my own work, it certainly is my opinion that a book worth reading only in childhood is not worth reading even then.”

Lewis dismissed writing what children might like for entertainment or need to hear oncslewis bath lion moral grounds. He views these kinds of writers more as anthropologists observing children as a distinct group producing works that they themselves do not like but what  children are supposed to like or need educationally or morally.  He further cites commercial motives for these types of writers as well.  Lewis remarks that he would lay very long odds against the Ministry of Education writing a good story for children.  “Good writers neither patronize nor idolize children but treat them with respect”.

Lewis with LionLewis advises writers to bring a story into being from the “whole cast of the author’s mind” and write from elements of their own imagination they share with children. He describes his writing process similar to bird watching, initially waiting quietly and watching what pictures arise in the imagination to take form and then joining them up with other similar pictures eventually creating a complete story.  Lewis admits that stories rarely come together whole and complete and usually have gaps that need “deliberate inventing” to complete the story.  However if the writer is lucky, the whole set of pictures join together “without doing anything yourself” other than taking dictation.  The main point of his process is that the story comes up from within the writer’s imagination and is not imposed by outside considerations of marketability or moral necessity.  In addition, some of the best stories, Lewis says, are written extemporaneously by authors such as Kenneth Graham, Lewis Carroll and Tolkien for a particular living child.                                                                                              C.S.-Lewis-Quote on world

The type of story Lewis recounts as “dearest to my own taste” is the fantasy or fairy tale.  He calls these genres a subspecies of children’s stories but we now know them as genres in their own right for both children and adults whether written for children in mind or not.   Tolkien claims that the appeal of fairy story lies in the author’s function as a sub-creator, creating a subordinate world of his own rather than commenting on current life situations directly.

I view my writing as a co-creation with the Muse and the world created as not subordinate to the “real” world but an integral part of it accessed, as Jung would say, in the archetypes of the collective unconscious.  In this way fairy tales, fantasy and visionary fiction can liberate us.  I remembered that I was fascinated with magic and what and how I would use magical powers in real life adventures.  I devoured Half Magic as a child and found it wonderous to live in that world along with my own day to day world.  I also loved A Wrinkle in Time as a twenty-something and of course enjoyed the Harry Potter books as an adult along with my sons.  I didn’t just read these books but lived in them.  C.S. Lewis’s take on writing for and about children and adults in his various essays have confirmed my own beliefs when I began my magical visionary book series (the Urwelt Chronicles) for children and adults.  I am grateful for his generation of fairy tale/fantasy writers that gave us such wonderful classics.  For more information on my book series, visit my website: urweltchronicles.com.

Fawn

Lewis, C. S. (Ed. Walter Hooper) (1982).  C.S. Lewis on Stories and Other Essays on Literature. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers.

Rice, Constance “In Defense of the Fairy Tale: C.S. Lewis’s Argument for the Value and Importance of the Fairy Tale”  Inklings Forever. 2004. www.taylor.edu/cslewis.

 

The Rod of Power and the Magical Battle of Britain

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Merlin Sitting Rod

I would like to add the Rod (also called a staff or scepter), which symbolizes the knowledge that directs invisible spiritual forces applied to governance, to the Arthurian symbolism of the sword and scabbard (the Cup or Grail Cup).  The Rod of Power and its use belongs to the Arthurian Magus, Merlin, who wields it by means of a trained mind in esoteric spiritual knowledge.  In short, the Rod of Power represents “…Secret Wisdom employed to guide the affairs of nations” (Fortune, 1993, p. 43).  Dion Fortune writes specifically about its use in her letters (seventeen to twenty-two) to other initiates and adepts during World War II contained in The Magical Battle of Britain (edited by Gareth Knight).   “…and the Cup and the Sword and Sceptre make a wonderful symbol of balanced and functional force” (Fortune, 1993, p. 36).

This triune of symbols, or triple-rayed triangle referred to by Fortune, brings to mind the three-legged stool upon which balance is achieved.  Fortune describes the thought form of the triple-rayed triangle as consisting of three definite rays (red for Sword, blue for Scabbard/Cup and purple for Rod/Sceptre) forming the three angles of a triangle through which the white light of Spirit poured.  This symbol was built up on the Inner Plane and evoked in 1940 during WWII by the members of the Society of Inner Light trained in occult methods of meditation.  The triple-rayed triangle not only represents spiritual forces expressing inner realities but mythical archetypal forces by which national identities are formed, fed and preserved.

Tree of Life

For those of you versed in the Qabalistic correspondences, Fortune assigns the Sword and Red Ray of the destructive dynamic of Mars to the Sephirah Geburah on the Pillar of Severity and the Rod of Power and the Blue Ray of organizing civilizing forces of Jupiter to the Sephirah Chesed on the Pillar of Mercy.  The Scabbard/Cup of the Purple Ray is assigned to the Christ Center of the Tree, the Sephirah Tiphareth, where forces are brought into equilibrium.  The sword is the dynamic force that destroys evil and also the Sword of Chivalry and protection; the Scabbard/Cup is the receptacle of spiritual influences, the container of force and its potentiality; and the Rod of Power rules and directs Invisible Forces from Inner Planes of existence into the material world.  Continue reading

The Sword and the Scabbard: Key Symbols of Arthurian Legend

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Sword StoneI have redesigned my website/blog to suit the nature of interests in mythological symbolism and contemporary politics which is the essence of the nonfiction book I am currently writing on Arthurian legend and Celtic symbolism titled, The Sword and the Scabbard: The Political and Spiritual Ethos of  Arthurian Legend.  This website, Mythic Musings, focuses on mythology, Jungian archetypes and symbolism in political and nonpolitical contexts.  It pays particular attention to the symbols of the sword and the scabbard (stone) found in my nonfiction work in progress.  These symbols also find their way into my fictional children series, the Urweltchronicles (see my other website urweltchronicles.com featuring the first book in the series, The Lioness and the Faery Queen (in revision) and related content (faeries, music, Wales, magic).  

I also wanted to provide more goodies on this site about Jungian archetypes found in contemporary political events, and mythological symbolism and archetypes in general that I imported from my politicalmythos site which I will no longer use as it is too narrow in focus.  Below is an introductory preview and the imported posts with more to come in 2015 and 2016!       Arthur Sword Merlin

The sword and scabbard are at the symbolic core of Arthurian legend.  The symbolism not only dwells in the stories of the coming of Arthur as the great king and uniting force in Great Britain destined for the gifting of the magical sword, Excalibur, by the Lady of the Lake, it also comes down through the ages from the teachings of the Kabbalah and the reworking of archetypal imaging found in other legends of Norse and Greek legacy.  From Greek myths we have the magical sword of Peleus, and from Norse mythology we have the god-given sword driven into the Branstock tree by the great god, Odin, to be at last drawn out by Sigmund, the youngest son of the dynastic House of King Volsung.  But none quite captures the mystical realm of King Arthur and his legendary knights of the round table. Morgan Le FayOther iconic archetypes include Merlin, at once arch druid, sage, magician, magus and Arthur’s closest counselor; Arthur’s faerie bride, Guinevere, from the Summerland and her star-crossed lover, Sir Lancelot; and finally, Morgan le Fay, priestess, enchantress, healer, half-sister and true mystical consort of the sacred king, Arthur.

Books, poems, blogs on each one of the characters comprising Arthurian legend abound, but I will focus on how the many storied aspects of the legend relate to the overarching symbolism of the sword and scabbard set in Celtic mythology, Kabbalistic symbolism, and further realized through Jungian archetypes.

The Sword and the Scabbard: The Political and Spiritual Ethos of Arthurian Legend

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Part III: The Puer Archetype and the Warrior King

The third part of this blog explores the warrior king as the Jungian puer archetype with regard to the Qabalistic understanding of the scabbard and sword and its political application.

King_arthur__KarrMost of us know King Arthur as the courageous “once and future king” destined to unite Great Britain and establish the peaceful kingdom of Camelot by creating the Knights of the Round Table. However by examining his shallow understanding of the scabbard and sword, it is clear that he personifies the Jungian archetype of the Puer, and that this more than anything else shapes his destiny. The Puer is the quintessential “innocent” eternal male-child who acts in the world without thoughtful consideration often possessed of an early realization of deeper spiritual truths which are treated in a casual manner without mature judgment and value. Since Arthur chooses the importance of the sword over the scabbard, he acts like the quintessential Puer, unable to relate to the world with mature self-regulation. The Puer has an overly-developed fantasy life; layers of illusion cover the reality of his situation which is perhaps why he is unable to at first realize Morgan’s trickery in switching Excalibur and its scabbard for those of unequal value. According to Kime, the sword serves the psychological function as the “…main means of communication with the material world”. The end result is the misappropriation of the use of the sword.

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The Sword and the Scabbard: The Political and Spiritual Ethos of Arthurian Legend

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Part II.  The Sacred Warrior King

Apologies for the delay in continuing this series of blogs on Arthurian legend.  Moving and an operation from which I am fully recovered has sidelined me for the last six months.  So onward!  The second part of this blog series further discusses Arthur, the sacred warrior king, as the archetypal hero of British legend and his relationship to the divine feminine and further explores the Celtic narrative in which he is situated.

Very little of this world has the staying power of mythology. Mythological narratives make use of spiritual and psychological archetypes, as well as, material symbolism to work on the subconscious in an attempt to bring realization of spiritual truths to the level of consciousness.  Its archetypal nature is found, as Jung points out, in the collective unconscious of humanity, and is therefore salient to all cultures. Archetypes are primal, such as the great mother/father, warrior, hero, fool, and puer (the eternal male child). Primal archetypes are reinvented and cast in different cultural stories throughout the ages.  In western mythology, none is arguably more powerful and pervasive than the mythology surrounding King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table. Perhaps this is due to Arthur’s later twelfth century medieval personification as the resurrected Christ.  Similar to the Christ story, the sacred warrior king and his chivalrous Knights of the Round Table will return when the time is right.

CW159046This sacred warrior king encapsulates the archetypal hero like no other.  And I say “encapsulates” because a wealth of imagery and narrative stories have been built up around him, situated firmly in the elemental/magical forces found in Celtic mythology.  The Arthurian narrative is replete with supernatural beings, magical powers, entrapment, testing of one’s resourcefulness and mettle, and of course, the rapturous love and desire of the troubadour tradition passed on by the oral songs of the bardic poet.

The Arthurian narrative is also found in pre-Christian Celtic mythology in stories of young sacrificial gods such as Oengus, Merlin Emrys, and Segda Saerlabraid. The young gods, who serve in a sacrificial role, follow the story cycle of a mysterious conception, fosterage, and pre-destined fate. The sacred king is neither human nor divine but connected and sanctioned by the elements through his relationship with the Goddess of the Land, also known as Sovereignty. Their sacred union is a key feature of Celtic kingship.  As such, the sacred king has not only a sacred obligation to the land but to magically empowering objects which he must guard and revere. These objects are called the Hallows of the land, given as gifts by the Goddess of Sovereignty to hold in trust for the entire kingdom.

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King Arthur: The Making of a Celtic Hero-God

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This is the first blog in a series of blogs exploring the symbolic, spiritual and archetypal aspects and meanings of the sacred sword Excalibur and the scabbard in which it rests ready for battle.  How the sword is used either for noble purpose or callous disregard will perhaps give us a greater awareness of our own energetic forces where ever they lie—in the personal, political or spiritual arenas.

drawingswordTwo primary, and from all appearances, competing stories of how Arthur came to possess Excalibur have been passed down though legend.  The first of which we are most familiar is the pulling of the sword from the stone or an anvil set on a stone; the second, less fanciful and more in line with Celtic rather than Classical mythology, is the gifting of the sword to Arthur by the Lady of the Lake.  The disneyfied version shows Arthur achieving his kingship and all the authority that goes with it by simply drawing the sword from the stone.  However, the story of King Arthur and his predestined rise to kingship of legendary status is steeped in more complex and multifaceted Celtic mythology. Although both stories exemplify Celtic tradition to a greater or lesser degree, they must be seen together as contiguous parts of Arthurian legend to gain a better historical and symbolic understanding of the customs, traditions and spirituality underlying Celtic mythology.

Excalibur

 

King-Arthur-Excalibur            The drawing of the sword out of the stone is traditionally seen as a test for kingship—one of many Celtic tests for ones suitability to be declared king.  Only the rightful heir to this position, which conferred heroic and godlike attributes, could perform this deed.  As the heroic-god king, Arthur’s authority comes not from his legal position per se but from the way he used his position.  He is characterized as excelling above “all other princes in courtesy, prowess, valor and generosity” (Markale, 1994, p 141). Indeed, his sense of nobility and chivalry set the tone of his court, at least before jealousy and betrayal took hold.  However, in reality according to Celtic traditions , kings were also bound by a myriad of so-called geisa, taboos or prohibitions determining how the king must carry out his duties. Transgression of a geisa usually rendered the king impotent, destitute or dead and his kingdom turned to a wasteland.  Kings were often no more than tribal chieftains of a group of related families or king of a province.  Continue reading

Why the Threat of Cancer Makes Me a Better Blogger (And Writer)

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Lung Cancer, in a word, cuts to the chase.  Procrastination feels obscene, an entitlement no longer allowed.  After all, how long will I have the luxury of babbling my inner or outer most thoughts—some inane, others that may on a good day approach profound—into the abyss of the virtual void of the blogosphere?

Cancer is something almost no one wants to discuss, not even doctors.  They dance around the diagnosis with detailed explanations of medical procedures buffered by words linked in phrases of encouragement, for example, prognosis and cure, stages (of which I am “early”) and positive outcome, etc.  They did not tell me, for example, that the “prognosis” for early stage lung cancer survival rates beyond five years is 49%.  That was left to the blogs and various medical research websites to do.

In all fairness, I shouldn’t only paint doctors into this awkward corner.  Most people, beyond the “I’m so sorry to hear that” don’t really want to know how I feel or what array of thoughts (sad, purposeful, hopeless, hopeful, anger, disbelief, incredulous, bizarre, stoic and so on) I have, sometimes in the course of one day.  I understand this at one level.  Humans are hardwired for survival and engaging with the world as part of the living.  It is difficult to engage with someone who may be joining the world of the dying.  It is a rare gift to be present for those that may not or will not be physically present in the near rather than the far future.  This may also be due to the bothersome fact that most of us are hardwired to fix things, even the cycle of life experienced in the birth and death of all living matter.

non smokers

Playing the why game, a morbid game of 20 questions, is one I quickly learned not do as a chaplain.  And,  I no longer desire to entertain myself further by running the 20 odd questions through my head regarding the probable diagnosis of cancer, although I’m open to vile diseases spread by aliens invading from other universes.  Aliens seem as plausible as “non-smokers cancer”.  Is this some perverse payback for staring down smokers who lit up at inappropriate times and places?  Perhaps they should call it, “just breathing during the normal course of life and tough luck” cancer.  Is the environment really that bad?  I even dove into the musty recesses of my mind to figure out if I used chemical paint strippers one too many times on furniture I was refinishing decades ago. Alas, I have asked these questions to no avail.   Continue reading

The Use of Spiritual Archetypal Symbols: The Tools of the Chaplain Trade

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In our bones we have a sense of the sacred, of a relationship to a power greater than ourselves that is archetypal and prehistorical.  Jean S. Bolen, M.D.

Persephone, the daughter of Zeus and Demeter, went out onto the plain of Enna one sunny morning innocently gathering wildflowers.  Hades, the god of the underworld, who coveted Persephone as his bride, chose this moment of unprotected innocence to rise up through a huge gap in the earth. Riding in his chariot he abducted Persephone back into the murky depths of the underworld.  Demeter, the goddess of fertility and growth withdrew in mourning for the loss of her daughter causing the earth to turn barren and cold.  As famine spread across the land, Zeus sent Hermes, the messenger of the gods, to rescue his daughter.  Hades agreed to let her go but for only part of the year during the seasons of growth and harvest.  During the winter, Persephone must return to the underworld to live.

Unlike Persephone, the Sumerian goddess of the outer world, Inanna, chose to enter into the underworld of her own accord to visit her sister Ereshkigal.   Descending through a series of gateways into the dark unknown, she surrendered pieces of clothing and jewelry at each threshold.  Finally, bowed and naked, she entered the final gates of the underworld alone, frightened and without any of the trappings of her outer world existence.

The underworld motif found in myth and religion is an apt metaphor for the world the patient enters when undergoing treatment for a life-threatening illness or emergency trauma.  Whether snatched like Persephone against her will into the confusing turmoil of the emergency room due to a sudden accidental trauma or, like Inanna, deciding with purpose to descend into the complexities of a treatment program for a serious disease or condition, patients enter the dark underworld often accompanied only by fear and pain.  In myth, the underworld was not only considered a place where mortals entered after they died, but also a place for the living as well, whose souls were doomed to wander in the shadows of a surreal existence outside of the norm.

Like Persephone and Inanna, bewildered and stripped of their outer world personae and attachments, patients descend through the various gateways of medical tests, operations and treatments into the underworld of a trauma one hospital.  Faced with the dark unknown, patients often experience pain, fear and anger at the loss of control that comes with the new frightening and unfamiliar surroundings.  This is usually the point at which the chaplain enters a patient’s life as a presence of compassion but also as a symbol of the sacred journey towards healing and wholeness.  Chaplains are companions of brief duration in this frightening environment offering a willing ear and open heart.  Some patients do not return from this journey but those who do are, like Persephone and Inanna, forever changed by the experience.

As a trauma one hospital chaplain, I saw the gamut of accidents and diseases that brought patients in for emergency care.  During the progression and treatment of a life-threatening illness or sudden life altering accident, a patient’s psychological defenses start to crumble revealing inner truths which have long been ignored.  Sometimes these truths are too painful to fully acknowledge.  A mother who has always put the needs of family members first now feels empty when they fail to respond in like manner.  A successful businessman fights to maintain the mask of control amid bouts of panic and fear.  A cancer patient, experiencing the shock of a terminal diagnosis after recently returning from the cruise vacation of a lifetime where all was right with the world, is numb to any words of consolation.

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The Destroyer: Rebirth or Destruction

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The Destroyer comes unbidden but not without warning to wake us up from our sleepy complacency. The majority of Americans are disconnected, almost anesthetized from our politics preferring to complain rather than actively engage.  This leaves a power vacuum into which the Destroyer seeps and grows over time.  The Destroyer is the wake-up call for an initiation into a new ethos.  The new ethos can be under the Destroyer’s control or we can choose a different path of transformation.  The Destroyer also brings us closer in touch with our own mortality, providing us with the opportunity through awareness to recognize the preciousness of life and to act on what we desire for ourselves in the remaining time left and  what we aspire to leave behind as our legacy.

The Destroyer serves a useful purpose in that it stirs things up creating a temporary chaos, cleansing the old order away so the new can grow in its place.  This is the way of life from the beginning of time; the old dies off and makes way for the new.  However, to evolve and grow without complete self-destruction, we must be careful not to throw the baby out with the bath water so we have a solid foundation upon which to recreate our lives and our society.  Our children build upon the lessons past generations have learned.  They also move forward based on past achievements as well.  No generation wants to start from scratch.  Human growth and development relies on the removal of the dross but also on retaining the gold.

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Robert F. Kennedy: An Iconoclast for the 60s

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Brent Budowsky, a former aide to Senator Lloyd Bensten recently wrote a brief article about Robert Kennedy in The Hill comparing Obama to RFK.   In my last post I made reference to the rarity of an iconoclast leader.  RFK was such a leader in that he was able to transcend the politics of the day and hold fast to his vision which many times lay outside the mainstream consensus.  While holding the post of Attorney General from 1960 to 1963, he supported the civil rights movement taking actions which ran counter to the  establishment of the day.  Originally supporting the Vietnam War, he split with President Johnson and opposed the war’s escalation before most of his colleagues in the Senate and the country at large.  The following quote is a portion of RFK’s remarks made during a speech at the University of Kansas on March 18, 1968 after declaring his intention to run for the presidency.

“And if we seem powerless to stop this growing division between Americans, who at least confront one another, there are millions more living in the hidden places, whose names and faces are completely unknown – but I have seen these other Americans – I have seen children in Mississippi starving, their bodies so crippled from hunger and their minds have been so destroyed for their whole life that they will have no future.  I have seen children in Mississippi – here in the United States – with a gross national product of $800 billion dollars – I have seen children in the Delta area of Mississippi with distended stomachs, whose faces are covered with sores from starvation, and we haven’t developed a policy so we can get enough food so that they can live, so that their children, so that their lives are not destroyed, I don’t think that’s acceptable in the United States of America and I think we need a change.

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